Spatial pattern of HIV-1 cases of vertical transmission in Madrid (Spain): impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors

Palladino, Claudia; Bellón, Jose María; Resino, Rosa; Muñoz, Laura Díaz; Alonso, Dolores Garcia; Muñoz-Fernandez, MaÁngeles
January 2008
Retrovirology;2008 Supplement 1, Vol. 5, Special section p1
Academic Journal
Conference Paper
Introduction The Autonomic Community of Madrid is the area most affected by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Spain, with a total of 17,667 AIDS cases up to December 2006, the 23.9% of the cases registered at national level. Objectives To depict the spatial evolution of the HIV-1 cases of mother to child transmission (MTCT) and to assess the possible impact of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population of the Municipality of Madrid on the HIV epidemic in the paediatric population. Materials and methods We performed a study of a retrospective observational cohort of 224 HIV-1 vertically infected children (≤17 years old) living in Madrid, born between 1980 and 2006. The analysis was stratified in 5 calendar periods (CP) on the basis of the changing antiretroviral treatment protocols: CP1 (80-89): children were untreated; CP2 (90-93): the standard of care was monotherapy with nucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI); CP3 (94-96): children were receiving dual-NRTI therapy; CP4 (97-98): the antiretroviral regiments was HAART with a combinations of three or more drugs; CP5 (99-06): more than 60% were on HAART and less than 10% were still untreated. We assumed that vertical transmission occurred on the birth day. We georeferenciated the HIV-1 MTCT cases and we elaborated maps representing the prevalence of HIV-1 MTCT cases by the 21 districts of Madrid, with the support of ArcView Geographic Information Systems Version 3.1. Afterwards, we carried out an ecological analysis to assess the association between demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population of the different districts of Madrid and the spatial distribution of HIV-1 MTCT cases. Results The districts with the higher prevalence of HIV-1 MTCT were: Usera, Puente de Vallecas, San Blas in the Southern area of the city, and Hortaleza in the Northern area. We observed a significant correlation between the prevalence of HIV-1 MTCT cases and 1) the percentage of migrants in 1996 (ρ= -0.54; P=0.011) and in 2001 (ρ= -0.54; P=0.011); 2) the percentage of illiterates in 1996 (ρ=0.49; P=0.025) and in 2001 (ρ=0.59; P=0.005); 3) the percentage of unemployed women in 1996 (ρ=0.48; P=0.029) and in 2001 (ρ=0.58; P=0.005); 4) the mean annual incoming in 1996 (ρ= -0.51; P=0.019) and in 2000 (ρ= -0.51; P=0.018). Conclusions We observed the highest prevalence of HIV-1 MTCT in the geographical areas with a lower socio-economical status.


Related Articles

  • Mother-child HIV/syphilis eliminated.  // Lamp;Aug2015, Vol. 72 Issue 7, p10 

    The article reports that Doctor Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization, has called the elimination of mother-child HIV and syphilis transmission in Cuba "one of the greatest public health achievements possible."

  • Eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission in South Africa. Barron, Peter; Pillay, Yogan; Doherty, Tanya; Sherman, Gayle; Jackson, Debra; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Robinson, Precious; Goga, Ameena // Bulletin of the World Health Organization;Jan2013, Vol. 91 Issue 1, p70 

    Problem The World Health Organization has produced clear guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, ensuring that all PMTCT programme components are implemented to a high quality in all facilities presents challenges....

  • Uso de terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA) y transmisión vertical dei VIH. Cuba 1989-2008. Álvarez, Tania Roig; Núnez, Ida González; Corcho, Dennis Verdasquera // Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil;abr-jun2013, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p111 

    Objectives: to describe the use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive Cuban pregnant women and the relationship between the type of mother antiretroviral treatment used during pregnancy and perinatal transmission. Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out in 319...

  • Management of Infertility in HIV infected couples: A Review. Agboghoroma, Chris O.; Giwa-Osagie, Osato. F. // African Journal of Reproductive Health;Dec2012, Vol. 16 Issue 4, p13 

    The HIV epidemic has continued to grow and remains a major challenge to mankind. In the past, ethical considerations about the resulting child and risks of sexual, vertical and nosocomial transmission of HIV prevented practitioners from offering fertility services to people living with HIV. In...

  • From caution to urgency: the evolution of HIV testing and counselling in Africa. Baggaley, R.; Hensen, B.; Ajose, O.; Grabbe, K. L.; Wong, V. J.; Schilsky, A.; Lo, Y.-R.; Lule, F.; Granich, R.; Hargreaves, J. // Bulletin of the World Health Organization;Sep2012, Vol. 90 Issue 9, p652 

    Objective To describe recent changes in policy on provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in African countries and to investigate patients' experiences of and views about PITC. Methods A review of the published literature and of national...

  • Implementing anti-retroviral triple therapy to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission: a public health approach in resource-limited settings. Marazzi, Cristina M.; Germano, Paola; Liotta, Giuseppe; Guidotti, Giovanni; Loureiro, Sandra; Gomes, Aurelio da Cruz; Blazquez, Maria C. Valls; Narciso, Pasquale; Perno, Carlo F.; Mancinelli, Sandro; Altan, Annamria Doro; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Palombi, Leonardo; Altan, Annamaria Doro // European Journal of Pediatrics;Dec2007, Vol. 166 Issue 12, p1305 

    The article presents a study on the implementation of anti-retroviral triple therapy to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission in Mozambique. The study provided highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) to pregnant woman until six months postpartum, and formula, clean water, nutritional...

  • HAART-based strategy for PMTCT of HIV worth it in Tanzania.  // PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News;10/16/2010, Issue 614, p2 

    The article discusses research study on the cost effectiveness of a comprehensive highly active antiretroviral (HAART)-based intervention in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV infections compared to single-dose nevirapine in Tanzania, which references a study by B. Robberstad and...

  • Developments in the field of HIV estimates: methods, parameters and trends. Stanecki, Karen; Garnett, Geoff P.; Ghys, Peter D. // Sexually Transmitted Infections;Dec2012 Supplement, pi1 

    An introduction to articles published within the issue is presented, including one on the duration of high risk sexual behavior among key population groups, another on the estimated mortality of adult HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy, and one article on the derivation of a...

  • Guidelines for the management of HIV infection in pregnant women. Peate, Ian // British Journal of Midwifery;Mar2012, Vol. 20 Issue 3, p215 

    The article discusses the guidelines on the management of HIV infection in pregnant women designed for use by midwives and other clinical professionals directly involved with the care of pregnant women with HIV infection. The proposed guidelines include guidance on the use of antiretroviral...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics