Historical and Future Trends in Ocean Climate and Biogeochemistry

March 2014
Oceanography;Mar2014, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p108
Academic Journal
Changing atmospheric composition due to human activities, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel burning, is already impacting ocean circulation, biogeochemistry, and ecology, and model projections indicate that observed trends will continue or even accelerate over this century. Elevated atmospheric CO2 alters Earth's radiative balance, leading to global-scale warming and climate change. The ocean stores the majority of resulting anomalous heat, which in turn drives other physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Sea surface warming and increased ocean vertical stratification are projected to reduce global-integrated primary production and export flux as well as to lower subsurface dissolved oxygen concentrations. Upper trophic levels will be affected both directly by warming and indirectly from changes in productivity and expanding low oxygen zones. The ocean also absorbs roughly one-quarter of present-day anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The resulting changes in seawater chemistry, termed ocean acidification, include declining pH and saturation state for calcium carbon minerals that may have widespread impacts on many marine organisms. Climate warming will likely slow ocean CO2 uptake but is not expected to significantly reduce upper ocean acidification. Improving the accuracy of future model projections requires better observational constraints on current rates of ocean change and a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling key physical and biogeochemical processes.


Related Articles

  • Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks. Heimann, Martin; Reichstein, Markus // Nature;1/17/2008, p289 

    The article focuses on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics which have a positive feedback in a warming world. It notes that terrestrial ecosystem gain carbon through photosynthesis and lose it primarily as carbon dioxide through respiration in autotrophs and heterotrophs. It is observed...

  • Determining CO2 Airborne Fraction Trends with Uncertain Land Use Change Emission Records. Chiodi, Andrew; Harrison, Ed // International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts & Responses;2012, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p79 

    Over the last decade, the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has risen much more steeply than in the previous four. Recently, some have suggested that one cause for this is that the fraction of anthropogenically emitted CO2 that contributes to annual increases in the...

  • Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. Goll, D. S.; Brovkin, V.; Parida, B. R.; Reick, C. H.; Kattge, J.; Reich, P. B.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Niinemets, Ü. // Biogeosciences;2012, Vol. 9 Issue 9, p3547 

    Terrestrial carbon (C) cycle models applied for climate projections simulate a strong increase in net primary productivity (NPP) due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. These models usually neglect the limited availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P),...

  • Role of atmospheric carbon dioxide in climate change. Hertzberg, Martin; Schreuder, Hans // Energy & Environment;Nov2016, Vol. 27 Issue 6/7, p785 

    The authors evaluate the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) consensus that the increase of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere is of anthropogenic origin and is causing dangerous global warming, climate change and climate disruption. The totality of the data...

  • Dissolved organic carbon trends resulting from changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry. Monteith, Donald T.; Stoddard, John L.; Evans, Christopher D.; de Wit, Heleen A.; Forsius, Martin; Høgåsen, Tore; Wilander, Anders; Skjelkvåle, Brit Lisa; Jeffries, Dean S.; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Keller, Bill; Kopácek, Jiri; Vesely, Josef // Nature;11/22/2007, Vol. 450 Issue 7169, p537 

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain recent, widespread increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface waters of glaciated landscapes across eastern North America and northern and central Europe. Some invoke anthropogenic forcing through mechanisms...

  • Dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to global temperature changes between 1850 and 2010. Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna // Advances in Atmospheric Sciences;Feb2016, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p247 

    Changes in Earth's temperature have significant impacts on the global carbon cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a temperature sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr °C)...

  • Isotopes for Ecosystems. Weltzin, Jake F.; Williams, David G. // BioScience;Sep2003, Vol. 53 Issue 9, p795 

    Focuses on the role of terrestial ecosystem in modulating the balance uptake and release of carbon dioxide. Implication of industrial activity and changes for the carbon cycle; Incorporation of carbon into long-lived components; Sequestration of carbon from atmospheric carbon and of older ones.

  • Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0). Bouttes, N.; Roche, D. M.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L. // Geoscientific Model Development;2015, Vol. 8 Issue 11, p1563 

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a...

  • Direct observations of diel biological CO2 fixation in the oceans. Thomas, H.; Craig, S. E.; Greenan, B. J. W.; Burt, W.; Herndl, G. J.; Higginson, S.; Salt, L.; Shadwick, E. H.; Urrego-Blanco, J. // Biogeosciences Discussions;2012, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p2153 

    Much of the variability in the surface ocean's carbon cycle can be attributed to the availability of sunlight, through processes such as heat fluxes and photosynthesis, which regulate over a wide range of time scales. The critical processes occurring on timescales of a day or less, however, have...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics