TITLE

Enhanced SO 2 concentrations observed over northern India: role of long-range transport

AUTHOR(S)
Mallik, Chinmay; Lal, Shyam; Naja, Manish; Chand, Duli; Venkataramani, S.; Joshi, Hema; Pant, P.
PUB. DATE
April 2013
SOURCE
International Journal of Remote Sensing;Apr2013, Vol. 34 Issue 8, p2749
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
The combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum products) constitutes a source of continuous release of anthropogenic SO2into the atmosphere. Furthermore, natural sources such as volcanoes can inject large amounts of SO2directly into the troposphere and sometimes even into the stratosphere. These event-based volcanic eruptions provide solitary opportunities to study the transport and transformation of atmospheric constituents. In this study, we present an episode of high SO2concentration over northern India as a result of long-range transport from Africa using multiple satellite observations. Monthly averaged column SO2values over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) were observed in the range of 0.6–0.9 Dobson units (DU) during November 2008 using observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). These concentrations were conspicuously higher than the background concentrations (<0.3 DU) observed during 2005–2010 over this region. The columnar SO2loadings were highest on 6 November over most of the IGP region and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10–20 higher than background levels in some places. These enhanced SO2levels were not reciprocated in satellite-derived NO2or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic SO2source. As most of the local aerosols over the IGP region occur below 3 km, a well-separated layer at 4–5 km was observed from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. Wind fields and back-trajectory analysis revealed a strong flow originating from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption in Ethiopia during 4–6 November 2008. Although volcanic SO2plumes have been extensively studied over many parts of Asia, Europe, and the USA, analysis of such events for the IGP region is being reported for the first time in this study.
ACCESSION #
86178895

 

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