Çevre Sorunlarının Çözümü İçin Radikal Bir Öneri: Derin Ekoloji

Yayli, Hasan; Çelık, Vasfiye
December 2011
Selcuk University Social Sciences Institute Journal;2011, Vol. 26, p369
Academic Journal
The environmental problems described as the devastation of natural balance is one of the most important problems in the world today. For the solution of this problem, there are two basic axels mentioned. The first axel whose basic reference is the environmental protecting is an approach suggesting removing the specific pollution that appears as an environmental problem. The most important approach for this is sustainable development approach. The other axel for the solution of the environmental problems is the radical ecology approach suggesting an altogether paradigm change from the current production and consumption forms. Deep ecology is accepted in the radical ecology actions and admits that the man has perceived the nature as a tool and this is the base of environmental problems, and it suggests a biocentric paradigm for the solution. Norwegian Philosopher Arne Naess, the father of Deep ecology, firstly talked about the deep-shallow ecology in "the conference about the future of the third world" in Bükreş in 1972. In his article published in 1973 "The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movements: A Summary", he brought up the differences between the deep and shallow ecologies and determined the principles of deep ecology, and in his article published in 1986 "The Deep Ecological Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects", he explained these principles in details. This article in which the differences between the deep and shallow approaches to the basic environmental problems were expressed is very important for summarizing the basic arguments of deep ecologists and bringing up the perspectives developed on the sources of environmental problems. Naess was considering the shallow ecology as protective-environmental action developed for the health and welfare of people in developed countries and thinking that there is a struggle against pollution and running out of sources under the shallow ecology concept. Also, the shallow ecology has intensified on the first effects of environmental crisis. The shallow ecology considered to have a human centered opinion has thought the nature as a lifeless thing and has been giving the man the right of ruling the nature. It gives the value of a tool to the nature. So, the shallow ecology has been considered as a type of "intellectual despotism". Yet, the deep ecology has believed the need of deep changes. As mentioned, the deep ecology refuses the human centered dualism separating nature and man, and considers man and nature as a whole. According to it, nature isn't the gathering of things independent from each other, but actions net attached to each other. According to it, there is a value in the nature without man. In this respect, man is the only one part of life net. Deep ecology approach has an approach of ecocentric (biocentric). The protection of nature and the diversity in the nature is based on the nature's own value not the benefit it gives to humanity. It is obligatory to protect the goodness of the world without man beside the goodness of humanity. The relationship between man and nature has to be ethical and esthetical instead of economical. The biocentric deep ecology needs a new viewpoint that man isn't separated from the nature or over it but in it. This function has been met by Gaia hypothesis that identifies the earth as not a settlement place but as a living organism and living forms that didn't gather randomly, so a personality has been attributed to it. In this respect, the basic principles of the deep ecology are as the following: 1. The good mood and development of humanity and the life without man have an inner value. These values are independent from the benefits of the world without man for the aims of the man. 2. The diversity and richness of life forms contribute to these values. This richness and diversity are also valuable in itself. 3. Except for meeting the living needs, the man has no right to decrease this richness and diversity. 4. The development of the life and culture of the man may be possible by decreasing the population of man (also the population of the other living forms has to be decreased). The development of the life without the man is possible with less population of man. 5. Presently, the interference of the man to the other life is excessive and the situation has deteriorated. 6. So, the policies have to be changed. The changed policies should affect the basic economical, technological and ideological structures. The result from this change has a deep difference from the current situation. 7. Ideological change doesn't aim high life standards but to give a value to the quality of the life. There will be a deep conscious about the difference between greatness and loftiness. 8. The people who agree with the principles above are obliged to making needed changes directly or indirectly. With its integral opinion, the deep ecology is against the environmental reformism. It creates its theory with the help of nature not the man. Naess gave importance to environmental wisdom and suggested the deep ecology as a solution to environmental reformism. So, the deep ecology is different from the classical environmental reformism because it is against domination, includes complex and biosphere dominated behaviors. The deep ecology theory, an ecological philosophy, has been described in this article "A Radical Suggestion for the Solution of Environmental Problems: Deep Ecology". In this respect, firstly the deep ecology concept was identified and then the basic principles and hypothesis were explained. Also, the Ecosophy concept that is a philosophical approach for the deep ecology was examined in this article. And the article was completed by writing the critics for the deep ecology.


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