Evaluation of Embodied Energy and Construction Costs for the Design of Low-Rise Apartments for Low-Income Residents in Surabaya, Indonesia

Noerwasito, Vincentius Totok
December 2011
Journal of Civil Engineering & Architecture;2011, Vol. 5 Issue 12, p1142
Academic Journal
Low-rise apartments for low-income residents have been built in Surabaya in recent years. They have four stories and many rooms, and the dwellers are all small traders. Because these projects are built with funds from the government, the buildings are designed to consider the cost of construction, without consideration of embodied energy material. As a result, the buildings are not optimal in terms of embodied energy and construction cost. At present, because there are both concerns over global warning and a worldwide energy crisis, the embodied energy in a building is a very important concept for building design, because it can determine usage of energy in relation to natural sources, especially fossil fuels. This is part of the sustainable design concept. This paper describes research regarding: differences in embodied energy and construction cost between different wall materials, including brick, corn block and lightweight concrete in low rise apartments; the optimal relationship between embodied energy and building cost; and which factors determine these differences. The findings of this research show that lightweight concrete is the best material for the building walls; apartments for low-income in Surabaya still do not represent optimal construction design; and that sustainable buildings are cheaper than those that do not use this concept.


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