TITLE

Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases: Statistical or causal association? A review and analysis using Hill's criteria for causation

AUTHOR(S)
Kotsovilis, Sotirios; Slim, Lynne H.
PUB. DATE
May 2012
SOURCE
Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene;May2012, Vol. 46 Issue 2, p131
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Objective: The objective of the review was to summarize and critically evaluate the available evidence, using systematic reviews and meta analyses, concerning the statistical strength and the nature (statistical and/or causal) of the association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Methods: The statistical association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases was assessed after searching PubMed and The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases for systematic reviews and meta analyses, published in English up to and including August 2011. The hypothesis stating a causal association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases was examined using Bradford Hill's criteria for causation. Results and Discussion: An independent statistically significant association of weak to moderate strength was found between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, such as advancing age, gender, race, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, indicators of socioeconomic status, stress, obesity, and lipid rich diet. The present analysis demonstrated only a partial fulfillment of Bradford Hill's criteria for causation. Conclusions: Periodontal diseases have an independent statistically significant association with cardiovascular diseases, although weak to moderate, after adjusting for the above mentioned potential confounding factors. It still remains unclear whether periodontal diseases are causal for cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians should inform patients about the association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, but should not overestimate or exaggerate the strength of this relationship.
ACCESSION #
75057777

 

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