TITLE

Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

AUTHOR(S)
Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.
PUB. DATE
May 2011
SOURCE
Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p14583
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Since aged carbon in fossil fuel contains no 14C, 14C/C ratios (Δ 14C) measured in atmospheric CO2 can be used to estimate CO2 added by combustion and, potentially, provide verification of fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. Sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract dilution by fossil CO2. Therefore, these nuclear sources can bias observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if they are not correctly accounted for or included as a source of uncertainty. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ 14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset 0-260 % of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ 14C, corresponding to potential biases of 0 to -8 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from respiration in some areas. Growth of 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005. The magnitude of this potential bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.
ACCESSION #
66845057

 

Related Articles

  • Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2. Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N. // Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 23, p12339 

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing...

  • The space and time impacts on U.S. regional atmospheric CO concentrations from a high resolution fossil fuel CO emissions inventory K. D. CORBIN ET AL. FOSSIL FUEL IMPACTS ON REGIONAL CO CONCENTRATIONS. CORBIN, KATHERINE D.; DENNING, A. SCOTT; GURNEY, KEVIN R. // Tellus: Series B;Nov2010, Vol. 62 Issue 5, p506 

    To improve fossil fuel CO emissions estimates, high spatial and temporal resolution inventories are replacing coarse resolution, annual-mean estimates distributed by population density. Because altering the emissions changes a key boundary condition to inverse-estimated CO fluxes, it is...

  • The CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate (COFFEE) dataset: effects from varying oxidative ratios. Steinbach, J.; Gerbig, C.; Rödenbeck, C.; Karstens, U.; Minejima, C.; Mukai, H. // Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics;2011, Vol. 11 Issue 14, p6855 

    We present a global dataset of CO2 emissions and O22 uptake associated with the combustion of different fossil fuel types. To derive spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen uptake, we combined high-resolution CO2 emissions from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research)...

  • An improved Kalman Smoother for atmospheric inversions. Bruhwiler, L. M. P.; Michalak, A. M.; Peters, W.; Baker, D. F.; Tans, P. // Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions;2005, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p1891 

    We explore the use of a fixed-lag Kalman smoother for sequential estimation of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. This technique takes advantage of the fact that most of the information about the spatial distribution of sources and sinks is observable within a few months to half of a year of...

  • A recent build-up of atmospheric CO2 over Europe. Part 1: observed signals and possible explanations. RAMONET, MICHEL; CIAIS, PHILIPPE; AALTO, TUULA; AULAGNIER, CÉLINE; CHEVALLIER, FRÉDÉRIC; CIPRIANO, DOMENICO; CONWAY, THOMAS J.; HASZPRA, LASZLO; KAZAN, VICTOR; MEINHARDT, FRANK; PARIS, JEAN-DANIEL; SCHMIDT, MARTINA; SIMMONDS, PETER; XUEREF-RÉMY, IRÈNE; NECKI, JAROSLAW N. // Tellus: Series B;Feb2010, Vol. 62 Issue 1, p1 

    We analysed interannual and decadal changes in the atmospheric CO2 concentration gradient (ΔCO2) between Europe and the Atlantic Ocean over the period 1995–2007. Fourteen measurement stations are used, with Mace-Head being used to define background conditions. The variability of...

  • Vertical profiles of biospheric and fossil fuel-derived CO2 and fossil fuel CO2 : CO ratios from airborne measurements of ?14C, CO2 and CO above Colorado, USA. GRAVEN, HEATHER D.; STEPHENS, BRITTON B.; GUILDERSON, THOMAS P.; CAMPOS, TERESA L.; SCHIMEL, DAVID S.; CAMPBELL, J. ELLIOTT; KEELING, RALPH F. // Tellus: Series B;Jul2009, Vol. 61 Issue 3, p536 

    Measurements of in atmospheric CO2 are an effective method of separating CO2 additions from fossil fuel and biospheric sources or sinks of CO2. We illustrate this technique with vertical profiles of CO2 and analysed in whole air flask samples collected above Colorado, USA in May and July 2004....

  • Climate effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the last century. RAFELSKI, LAUREN ELMEGREEN; PIPER, STEPHEN C.; KEELING, RALPH F. // Tellus: Series B;Nov2009, Vol. 61 Issue 5, p718 

    The buildup of atmospheric CO2 since 1958 is surprisingly well explained by the simple premise that 57% of the industrial emissions (fossil fuel burning and cement manufacture) has remained airborne. This premise accounts well for the rise both before and after 1980 despite a decrease in the...

  • The Airborne Fraction of Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions.  // CO2 Science;12/2/2009, Vol. 12 Issue 47, Special Section p1 

    The article examines a study that developed a history of the airborne fraction (AF) of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) (AF) since 1850. For the study, British researcher W. Knorr used data on CO2 emissions due to fossil-fuel use, cement production and changes in land use, as well as...

  • Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in East Asia inferred from satellite observations. Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P. // Nature Geoscience;Nov2014, Vol. 7 Issue 11, p792 

    At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics