Follicular Adenoma and Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

Mchenry, Christopher R.; Phitayakorn, Roy
May 2011
Oncologist;May2011, Vol. 16 Issue 5, p585
Academic Journal
Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland include benign follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Currently, a follicular carcinoma cannot be distinguished from a follicular adenoma based on cytologic, sonographic, or clinical features alone. The pathogenesis of follicular carcinoma may be related to iodine deficiency and various oncogene and/or microRNA activation. Advances in molecular testing for genetic mutations may soon allow for preoperative differentiation of follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Until then, a patient with a follicular neoplasm should undergo a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, which is definitive treatment for a benign follicular adenoma or a minimally invasive follicular cancer. Additional therapy is necessary for invasive follicular carcinoma including completion thyroidectomy, postoperative radioactive iodine ablation, whole body scanning, and thyrotropin suppressive doses of thyroid hormone. Less than 10% of patients with follicular carcinoma will have lymph node metastases, and a compartment-oriented neck dissection is reserved for patients with macroscopic disease. Regular follow-up includes history and physical examination, cervical ultrasound and serum TSH, and thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin antibody levels. Other imaging studies are reserved for patients with an elevated serum thyroglobulin level and a negative cervical ultrasound. Systemic metastases most commonly involve the lung and bone and less commonly the brain, liver, and skin. Microscopic metastases are treated with high doses of radioactive iodine. Isolated macroscopic metastases can be resected with an improvement in survival. The overall ten-year survival for patients with minimally invasive follicular carcinoma is 98% compared with 80% in patients with invasive follicular carcinoma.


Related Articles

  • Insight to neoplastic thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology. Rangaswamy, M; Narendra, Kl; Patel, S; Gururajprasad, C; Manjunath, Gv // Journal of Cytology;Jan-Mar2013, Vol. 30 Issue 1, p23 

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a valuable adjunct to pre‑operative screening in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and in most cases, it can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Aim: To study the cytology of neoplastic thyroid lesions to minimize...

  • Thyroid Lymphoma: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Optimal Management Strategies. Walsh, Siun; Lowery, Aoife J.; Evoy, Denis; McDermott, Enda W.; Prichard, Ruth S. // Oncologist;Sep2013, Vol. 18 Issue 9, p994 

    Primary thyroid lymphoma is rare, composing approximately 5% of all thyroid malignancies and less than 3% of all extranodal lymphomas. It typically presents as a rapidly enlarging goiter with associated compressive symptoms. Thyroid ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology, using flow...

  • Thyroid nodules.  // Mayo Clinic Health Letter;Aug2019, Vol. 37 Issue 8, p7 

    The article provides information on lumps in the thyroid called thyroid nodules. Topics discussed include how a thyroid nodule is often discovered, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy as another diagnostic step that may be performed, and treatment options including reduction in size of a large,...

  • Isolated intrathyroidal metastasis revealing an occult lung adenocarcinoma. Pasricha, Sunil; Gandhi, Jatin S.; Mehta, Anurag; Gupta, Gurudutt // Journal of Cytology;Jan-Mar2012, Vol. 29 Issue 1, p92 

    Thyroid gland is an uncommon site of tumor metastasis inspite of rich vascular supply. Most of the cases are picked up after the diagnosis or during the work up for the primary. Unexpected involvement of thyroid gland as the first presenting sign in a primary lung adenocarcinoma is an extremely...

  • Malignancy Rate in Thyroid Nodules Classified as Bethesda Category III (AUS/FLUS): Is There a Correct Answer? Heller, Keith S. // Thyroid;May2014, Vol. 24 Issue 5, p787 

    The author discusses application of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to evaluate the thyroid nodules, and mentions the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology which permits effective communication among clinicians. He also discusses a study conducted by researchers Allen Ho and...

  • Prognosis of Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Located in One Lobe Showing Lateral Node Metastasis in the Contralateral but Not Ipsilateral Compartment. Ito, Yasuhiro; Higashiyama, Takuya; Takamura, Yuuki; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Akira // Journal of Thyroid Research;2012, p1 

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) frequently metastasizes to the lymph node in lateral compartment, which can often be detected on preoperative ultrasonography (N1b). However, PTC located in one lobe showing contralateral but not ipsilateral N1b is not common. We analyzed the clinicopathological...

  • Follicular Adenoma with Extensive Extracellular Mucin Deposition: Report on Two Cases. Na Rae Kim; Hyun Yee Cho; PiÃa-Oviedo, Sergio; De La Roza, Gustavo; Lee, Young Don; Jae Y. Ro // Clinical Medicine Insights: Case Reports;2012, Issue 5, p155 

    We report two cases of follicular adenoma of the thyroid with extensive extracellular mucin deposition. Fine needle aspiration in Case 1 showed singly discohesive polygonal cells in a granular mucinous background. They contained abundant eosinophilic cyto­plasm, nuclear irregularities, and...

  • Primary Benign and Malignant Thyroid Neoplasms With Signet Ring Cells: Cytologic, Histologic, and Molecular Features. Farhat, Nada A.; Onenerk, Ayse M.; Krane, Jeffrey F.; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Sadow, Peter M.; Faquin, William C. // American Journal of Clinical Pathology;Sep2017, Vol. 148 Issue 3, p251 

    Objectives: Signet ring cells (SRCs) can be seen in a variety of thyroid tumors and can pose a diagnostic pitfall on cytology. This study describes the cytologic, histomorphologic, and molecular aspects of a cohort of primary thyroid tumors with SRCs.Methods: A search...

  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid: a case report and review of literature.  // Head & Neck Oncology; 

    Background: Thyroid gland lacks squamous epithelium (except in some rare situations like embroyonic remnants or in inflammatory processes); for that reason the primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of thyroid is extremely rare entity, seen only in less than 1% of all thyroid malignancies and is...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics