THE PRESENT AND FUTURE OF JAPANESE MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES : A Comparative Analysis of Japanese and U.S.-European Multinational Management

Kobayashi, Noritake
March 1982
International Studies of Management & Organization;Spring82, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p38
Academic Journal
The article compares the management style of Japanese multinational firms with those of the U.S. and Europe. In either case, all are companies with overseas investments of at least one billion yen and with at least five management centers abroad. The group of multinational majors consists of nine firms with firmly established business networks in the U.S., West Germany, England, and France. The lowest level of internationalization in planning and decision making is development of individual projects. A company's management organization changes depending on the type of business in which it is involved. Japanese firms provide excellent examples of the early stages of internationalization, which focus on trade, with an export department at the home office managing overseas sales of products produced in the company's home country.


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