Modeling the dynamic hypotheses of Gf-Gc theory using longitudinal life-span data

McArdle, John J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Meredith, William; Bradway, Katherine P.
March 2000
Learning & Individual Differences;2000, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p53
Academic Journal
This research uses longitudinal data from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and linear structural equation models (e.g., LISREL) in an evaluation of the structural, kinematic, and dynamic hypotheses of the "theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence." In a first set of analyses we use linear dynamic models in a formal evaluation of the growth and declines of abilities through latent growth and linear dynamic models. Our first results indicate separate trends over age for different intellectual abilities including broad knowledge, spatial reasoning, perceptual speed, and immediate memory. In a second set of analyses we extend these multivariate dynamic structural equation models to explore the age-based leading and lagging indicators. These results indicate a complex system of relationships, with memory losses as an important leading indicator. In a third set of analyses we use confirmatory techniques to test specific aging hypotheses. These results indicate support for both the "general memory loss" hypothesis and the "general slowing" hypothesis, provide some support for the" investment theory" at the adult level, and also suggest a single "general" factor does not describe the complexity of cognitive aging. These result synthesize prior WAIS studies and provide methods for further research on the dynamics of the growth and decline of intellectual abilities across the adult life-span. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.


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