Migrations Forced and Free

Berlin, Ira
February 2010
Smithsonian;Feb2010, Vol. 40 Issue 11, p80
The article discusses the changing heritage and identity of African Americans since the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, which lifted a number of U.S. immigration restrictions and enabled blacks from Africa, the Caribbean, and elsewhere to come to the United States. The subsequent increase in the number of black Americans not descended from slaves is discussed, as are debates over the meaning of the term "African American," and the significance for black immigrants of African American history and events like emancipation, segregation, and the U.S. civil rights movement.


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