Kilikya'da Yeni Asur Egemenliği ve Yerel Güçler

KURT, Mehmet
December 2008
Selcuk University Social Sciences Institute Journal;2008, Vol. 21, p327
Academic Journal
The Assyrian sources address to two regions in relation with Cilicia. While Adana and its vicinity was named as Que, at least some part of the mountainous region in the west was called Hilakku. This name, which was written as HLK/KLK in Aramaic language, is transformed into Cilicia in the Hellenic language and to refer to the region of Hilakku as it was called in the Iron Age. Besides its strategic and geopolitical position, Cilicia, had always been privileged in the Anatolia policies of New Assyrian State due to its rich natural sources. Shalmanassar III, noticing that the future of the Assyrian State lies in the North-west with a very far sight, was the first Assyrian king, who was interested in Que. Namely, our information about Que and Hilakku in the IX. Century B. C. is based on a campaign in the first year of the said Assyrian king's rule (858 B.C.). Moreover this first campaign shows that the Assyrian policy of expanding into central Anatolia was implemented. On the other hand, the campaign of Shalmanassar III. in 833 B.C., not only shed a light on the historical geography of the region, but also it is very important in showing the accuracy of the Assyrian administration style. Shalmanassar's various campaigns through Amanus and Que, betrays that he had big difficulties in establishing the Assyrian sovereignty in the region. In fact the Assyrians, despite their permeation into Que in the IX. Century B.C., could provide the Assyrian control over this region only after a century, when they gained the support of the local leaders. Tiglathpileser III. (745-727 B.C.), who could liberate the New Assyrian State from its depressions in the first half of the VIII. Century B.C., is the second Assyrian king who was closely interested in the region within the framework of the systemized western policy, which he was conducting. In the documents of Tiglathpileser III. era, Urikki, the king of Que, whom he defeated in 738 B.C. and laid under contribution, is mentioned as well. This fact shows that Que continued to pay contributes to Assyrians approximately hundred years after Shalmanassar. In the times of Tiglathpileser III., the political and administrative structure in Central Anatolia, showed that the continuity of Assyrian sovereignty here could only be possible by holding Que. The region was also a place of Assur-Muški (Phryg) struggles. Sargon II., started a campaign against the Muški king Mita in 715 B.C. upon his anti Assyrian activities in the region and captured some of the Que cities which were under the Assyrians since Shalmanassar III. The Assyrian king, who gained the control of Que, captured by Mita, had probably seized the region up to the starting point of Göksu (Kalykadnos). The Assyrian king achieved his goal over this region largely after this campaign. Because, besides cutting off the connection of Muški Kingdom to Mediterranian, the iron and lead mines in the Göksu Valley as well as forestry products consisting of mainly cedar were seized. Thus, it is to understood that the most decisive and lasting control over Cilicia Plane was warranted after 715 B.C. and 713 B.C. Sargon left Hilakku -probably due to the administrative difficulties - to Ambaris, King of Tabal, however the King of Tabal betrayed. Upon the unexpected betrayal of Ambaris, who relied on the King of Urartian, Sargon needed to revise his policy for the North-western states, and changed this policy radically. It is to be understood that this new policy, based on the eastern diplomacy and decreasing the number of the contributing principalities in the borders, was harshly implemented boyunca the Assyrian king. The rebellions in Que and Hilakku at the end of Sargon's rule and in the time of Sanherip, should be regarded as a sign showing that the Assyrians' started loosing the control over the region.…


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