TITLE

The role of the inflammasome in cellular responses to toxins and bacterial effectors

AUTHOR(S)
Freche, Barbara; Reig, N�ria; Goot, F.
PUB. DATE
September 2007
SOURCE
Seminars in Immunopathology;Sep2007, Vol. 29 Issue 3, p249
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Invading pathogens are recognized by mammalian cells through dedicated receptors found either at the cell surface or in the cytoplasm. These receptors, like the trans-membrane Toll-like Receptors (TLR) or the cytosolic Nod-like Receptors (NLR), initiate innate immunity after recognition of molecular patterns found in bacteria or viruses, such as LPS, flagellin, or double-stranded RNA. Recognition of molecules produced only by a specific pathogen, such as a viral envelop protein or a bacterial adhesin does not appear to occur. Bacterial protein toxins, however, might compose an intermediate class. Considering the diversity of toxins in terms of structure, it is unlikely that cells respond to them via specific molecular recognition. It rather appears that different classes of toxins trigger cellular changes that are sensed by the cells as danger signals, such as changes in cellular ion composition after membrane perforation by pore-forming toxins or type III secretion systems. The signaling pathways triggered through toxin-induced cell alterations will likely play a role in modulating host responses to virulent bacteria. We will here describe the few studied cases in which detection of the toxin by the host cell was addressed. The review will include not only toxins but also bacteria effectors secreted by the bacterium in to the host cell cytoplasm.
ACCESSION #
35352467

 

Related Articles

  • Pore-forming bacterial toxins and antimicrobial peptides as modulators of ADAM function. Reiss, Karina; Bhakdi, Sucharit // Medical Microbiology & Immunology;Nov2012, Vol. 201 Issue 4, p419 

    Membrane-perturbating proteins and peptides are widespread agents in biology. Pore-forming bacterial toxins represent major virulence factors of pathogenic microorganisms. Membrane-damaging peptides constitute important antimicrobial effectors of innate immunity. Membrane perturbation can incur...

  • Interactions of Antibiotics and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) Against Drug Resistance Bacterial Isolates. Aiyegoro, Olayinka; Adewusi, Adekanmi; Oyedemi, Sunday; Akinpelu, David; Okoh, Anthony // International Journal of Molecular Sciences;Jul2011, Vol. 12 Issue 7, p4477 

    Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of...

  • Host Immune Responses to Aeromonas Virulence Factors. Galindo, Cristi L.; Sha, Jian; Fadl, Amin A.; Pillai, Lakshmi L.; Chopra, Ashok K. // Current Immunology Reviews;2006, Vol. 2 Issue 1, p13 

    Aeromonas species are emerging human pathogens, which produce an array of virulence factors and cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to systemic infections. These bacteria can be found in food and water and grow well and produce toxins at refrigeration temperatures, which greatly increase...

  • Corrigendum: A CRISPR/Cas system mediates bacterial innate immune evasion and virulence. Sampson, Timothy R.; Saroj, Sunil D.; Llewellyn, Anna C.; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Weiss, David S. // Nature;9/12/2013, Vol. 501 Issue 7466, p262 

    A correction to the article "A CRISPR/Cas System Mediates Bacterial Innate Immune Evasion and Virulence" by Timothy R. Sampson et al. that was published in 2013 is presented.

  • TLR5 and Ipaf: dual sensors of bacterial flagellin in the innate immune system. Miao, Edward; Andersen-Nissen, Erica; Warren, Sarah; Aderem, Alan // Seminars in Immunopathology;Sep2007, Vol. 29 Issue 3, p275 

    The innate immune system precisely modulates the intensity of immune activation in response to infection. Flagellin is a microbe-associated molecular pattern that is present on both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Macrophages and dendritic cells are able to determine the virulence of...

  • Comparative study among clinical and commensal isolates of Enterococcus faecalis for presence of esp gene and biofilm production. Upadhyaya, Giridhara P. M.; Lingadevaru, Umapathy B.; Lingegowda, Ravikumar K. // Journal of Infection in Developing Countries;May2011, Vol. 5 Issue 5, p365 

    Introduction: Because of increasing difficulty in treating enterococcal infections, effort is being devoted to understanding factors that are responsible for causing nosocomial infection, with a focus toward targeting these factors with new therapeutics. Evidence has emerged that the esp gene...

  • Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli Isolated from Clinical Bovine Mastitis. Güler, Leyla; Gündüz, Kadri // Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences;2007, Vol. 31 Issue 5, p361 

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence of the genes for some virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical bovine mastitis. A total of 100 E. coli isolates, each isolated from individual cows in different herds between 2000 and 2005, were examined. Two multiplex...

  • The Science Of Pathogens. Berry, Jennifer // Bee Culture;Sept2014, Vol. 142 Issue 9, p27 

    The article discusses the virulence and pathogenicity of pathogens in bee culture. Noted is the positive correlation of pathogen's reproduction rate and its negative correlation with the host's fitness. It defines pathogenicity as the ability causing a qualitative and absolute disease....

  • The peculiarities of genetic structure of the Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei population in Lithuania. KOKINA, Inese; STATKEVICIUTE, Grazina; LEISTRUMAITE, Alge; RASHAL, Isaak // Zemdirbyste-Agriculture;2014, Vol. 101 Issue 4, p419 

    In 2010, samples of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei both in sporulation and cleistothecia were collected in Lithuania from spring barley variety 'Dina'. Eighty monopustule isolates were tested on differentials with well-known resistance genes. Frequencies of virulence genes, virulence complexity...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sign out of this library

Other Topics