TITLE

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

AUTHOR(S)
de Arazoza, Héctor; Joanes, Jose; Lounes, Rachid; Legeai, Camille; Clémençon, Stéphan; Pérez, Jorge; Auvert, Bertran
PUB. DATE
January 2007
SOURCE
BMC Infectious Diseases;2007, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p130
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background: The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods: Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected) and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results: HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000). Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 - 8.3 per 10,000). Most (77%) of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1%) of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM), and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 - 2.2 years). We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 - 81.4%) of the HIVpositive persons were detected. Conclusion: MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that antiretroviral therapy is more widely available, the Cuban policy, based on intensive HIV testing and tracing of partners, may be considered as a possible policy to control HIV/AIDS epidemics in other countries.
ACCESSION #
34975678

 

Related Articles

  • Voluntary counselling and testing sites as a source of sentinel information on HIV prevalence in a concentrated epidemic: a pilot project from Indonesia. Guy, R.; Mustikawati, D. E.; Wijaksono, D. B.; Nugraihini, N.; Priohutomo, S.; Silitonga, N.; Kaldor, J. M. // International Journal of STD & AIDS;Sep2011, Vol. 22 Issue 9, p505 

    Summary: A new system for monitoring HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) outcomes was established in 2007 at seven VCT clinics in Jakarta and Bali, Indonesia. Counsellors collected demographic and risk information from VCT clients. Logistic regression was used to determine factors...

  • Sexual Mixing in Shanghai: Are Heterosexual Contact Patterns Compatible With an HIV/AIDS Epidemic? Merli, M.; Moody, James; Mendelsohn, Joshua; Gauthier, Robin // Demography;Jun2015, Vol. 52 Issue 3, p919 

    China's HIV prevalence is low, mainly concentrated among female sex workers (FSWs), their clients, men who have sex with men, and the stable partners of members of these high-risk groups. We evaluate the contribution to the spread of HIV of China's regime of heterosexual relations, of the...

  • Antiretroviral therapy adherence and predictors to adherence in Albania: a cross-sectional study. Morrison, Shane D.; Rashidi, Vania; Sarnquist, Clea; Banushi, Vilson H.; Hole, Michael K.; Barbhaiya, Namrata J.; Gashi, Valbona H.; Osterberg, Lars; Maldonado, Yvonne; Harxhi, Arjan // Journal of Infection in Developing Countries;Jul2014, Vol. 8 Issue 7, p853 

    Introduction: The possibility of an HIV/AIDS epidemic in southeastern Europe (SEE) is not improbable. Thus, an understanding of the current issues surrounding HIV/AIDS care, specifically antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, in countries within SEE is critical. This study was conducted to...

  • AIDS.  // Caribbean Health;Apr1998, Vol. 1 Issue 1, p17 

    The article offers updates related to AIDS. Cytomegaluvirus (CMV) retinitis has affected 40% of AID patients wherein its nephrotoxic and high dosage may cause haematological and intraocular toxicity. A U.S. multicentre study reveals that AIDS patients have complications of cryptcoccal meningitis...

  • Opt-out testing for HIV: perspectives from a high prevalence community in south-east England, UK. Pollard, A; Llewellyn, C; Smith, H; Richardson, D; Fisher, M // International Journal of STD & AIDS;Apr2013, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p307 

    Peoples’ perspectives and attitudes towards being offered opt-out HIV testing were explored in a geographical area of high HIV prevalence. Users (n = 31) of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing services took part in community focus groups in the south-east of England, UK. There...

  • Emotional Connections to African Reporting. Green, Frank // Nieman Reports;Fall2004, Vol. 58 Issue 3, p55 

    This article presents describes the author's experience in reporting on the prevalence of AIDS in Zambia. I was not prepared for what I encountered at Chamboli Cemetery, a sprawl of knee-high brush, bare earth, and makeshift tombstones in northern Zambia. There the sound of picks and shovels...

  • San Francisco HIV cases continue to plateau. Bajko, Matthew S. // Bay Area Reporter;1/20/2005, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p11 

    Reports that the HIV epidemic has stabilized in San Francisco, California. Success of the city's system of HIV care; Comparison of HIV/AIDS incidence in heterosexuals, injection drug users and men who have sex with men; 2005 HIV consensus estimate to be conducted by the city.

  • A new infectious disease model for estimating and projecting HIV/AIDS epidemics. Le Bao // Sexually Transmitted Infections;Dec2012 Supplement, pi58 

    Objectives As the global HIV pandemic enters its fourth decade, countries have collected longer time series of surveillance data, and the AIDS-specific mortality has been substantially reduced by the increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment. A refined model with a greater flexibility...

  • The Dynamics of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Denisov, Boris Petrovich; Sakevich, Viktoriia Ivanovna // Russian Social Science Review;Jul/Aug2005, Vol. 46 Issue 4, p76 

    Discusses the dynamics of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Russia. System of epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection in Russia; First registered case of HIV in the Soviet Union; Results of the examination of the citizens of Russia for the antibody to HIV in 2002; Number of cases of HIV infection...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics