Movilidad social: cuando lo que cuenta es la familia

Ortega, Daniel
April 2006
Debates IESA;abr-jun2006, Vol. 11 Issue 2, p54
Academic Journal
The mobility between generations (or social mobility) is the possibility that an individual could have a different socioeconomic status in relation to his parents. This mobility can be "upwards" or "downwards" (his status can be worst than that of his parents). A society where the socioeconomic status does not significantly depend on the socioeconomic conditions of our parents offers more equal opportunities, as nor poverty neither wealth determine the destiny of his children. Latin America not only has great inequalities and poverty, but also societies where the poor have few opportunities to improve the precarious socioeconomic conditions in which they were born. Social mobility in Venezuela recorded a significant increase between I975 and 1988, but it has worsen also importantly since then. This decline occurred parallel to the duplication of the population educational level and indicates that the reduction of opportunities was not the result of a more reduced access to education. Besides, the public spending in education, though with important effects on the population well-being, has not been the factor that allows to explain the trends observed in terms of equal opportunities. The increase of women participation in the labor market has occurred in parallel to a worse perspective in relation to equal opportunities and serves to explain, at least partially, the present status of social mobility. All this suggests that any policy addressed to encourage equal opportunities shall take into account its impact on the decisions of ell members of the family. A policy that apparently improves the opportunities for the children can produce a different effect on the decisions relative to the labor participation of their parents.


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