A Distributed Snow-Evolution Modeling System (SnowModel)

Liston, Glen E.; Elder, Kelly
December 2006
Journal of Hydrometeorology;Dec2006, Vol. 7 Issue 6, p1259
Academic Journal
SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D accounts for snow redistribution by wind. Since each of these submodels was originally developed and tested for nonforested conditions, details describing modifications made to the submodels for forested areas are provided. SnowModel was created to run on grid increments of 1 to 200 m and temporal increments of 10 min to 1 day. It can also be applied using much larger grid increments, if the inherent loss in high-resolution (subgrid) information is acceptable. Simulated processes include snow accumulation; blowing-snow redistribution and sublimation; forest canopy interception, unloading, and sublimation; snow-density evolution; and snowpack melt. Conceptually, SnowModel includes the first-order physics required to simulate snow evolution within each of the global snow classes (i.e., ice, tundra, taiga, alpine/mountain, prairie, maritime, and ephemeral). The required model inputs are 1) temporally varying fields of precipitation, wind speed and direction, air temperature, and relative humidity obtained from meteorological stations and/or an atmospheric model located within or near the simulation domain; and 2) spatially distributed fields of topography and vegetation type. SnowModel’s ability to simulate seasonal snow evolution was compared against observations in both forested and nonforested landscapes. The model closely reproduced observed snow-water-equivalent distribution, time evolution, and interannual variability patterns.


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