¿Autosuficiencia, socialismo de mercado o ayuda económica?

León, José Luis
July 2003
Aportes: Revista Mexicana de Estudios Sobre la Cuenca del Pacifi;jul-dic2003, Vol. 3 Issue 6, p31
Academic Journal
Portrayed by many analysts of the 1960's as a "miracle", the North Korean economy is undergoing a structural crisis, whose solution does not like easy. The North Korean economy is plagued by a plethora of structural problems. Salient among them are the bottlenecks in infrastructure, the poor dynamism of the farming and industrial sectors, the energy crisis, and the serious imbalances in the external sector. Regarding these difficulties, the economy of North Korea faces three options. The first one is to maintain the central planning system, with the consequent risk of a deepening of the crisis, the reappearance of famines like those recorded in the second half of the 1990s and the possible loss of legitimacy of the regime. The second option would be to adopt a "market socialism", Chinese or Vietnamese style; although this strategy could assist to settle the crisis, the North Korean leadership fears to take it, as long as it could lose political control vis a vis foreign actors as well as the new social groups that would arise from the very process of economic modernization. The third option is to avoid serious reforms through the transformation of the country in a massive receiver of foreign aid. In this scenario, the political elite would seek to stay in office, while looking for solving the economic problem via the flows of international aid. The hypothesis of this article is that the North Korean leadership has decided for the last option, since it is the one that entails less risks for the own political class.


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