Multiple Vaginal Exposures to Low Doses of R5 Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Strategy to Study HIV Preclinical Interventions in Nonhuman Primates

Otten, Ron A.; Adams, Debra R.; Kim, Caryn N.; Jackson, Eddie; Pullium, Jennifer K.; Lee, Kemba; Grohskopf, Lisa A.; Monsour, Michael; Butera, Sal; Folks, Thomas M.
January 2005
Journal of Infectious Diseases;1/15/2005, Vol. 191 Issue 2, p164
Academic Journal
A nonhuman-primate model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection that more closely emulates human heterosexual transmission by use of multiple exposures to low doses of virus is critical to better evaluate intervention strategies that include microbicides or vaccines. In this report, we describe such a system that uses female pig-tailed macaques exposed vaginally to a CCR5-using simian-human immuno-deficiency virus (SHIV162P3) at weekly intervals. Results of dose-titration experiments indicated that 3 once-weekly exposures to 10 tissue culture infectious doses of SHIV162P3 resulted in consistent transmission of virus and establishment of systemic infection. The efficacy of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) as a vaginal microbicide was evaluated by applying it to the vaginal vault of macaques (n = 4) 15 mm before each weekly exposure to SHIV162P3. One conclusion that can be drawn from the data derived from multiple exposures to virus is that CAP prevented infection in 12 of 13 possible chances for infection, over the course of 39 total exposures. Our findings provide a basis to refine monkey models for transmission of HIV-1, which may be relevant to preclinical evaluation for therapeutic interventions.


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