Multiple Victimization (Bullying and Cyberbullying) in Primary Education in Spain from a Gender Perspective

Jiménez, Rocío
June 2019
REMIE - Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research;Jun2019, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p169
Academic Journal
Studies show that face-to-face aggression extends to other types of bullying behaviours through digital technologies. Current research is limited in primary education and contradictory in terms of gender. This study looked at the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying in Spain at an early age, identifying groups of victims from a gender perspective. It also associated school variables (sense of belonging at school, absenteeism or student confidence in STEM subjects) to the most vulnerable profile. In a second analysis, 4756 Spanish 4th grade Primary Education pupils completed the TIMMS 2015 standardized survey. The results showed four groups of victims, two characterized by multiple victimization (bullying and cyberbullying). There were significant gender differences between the groups. The percentage of girls in the profile of victims of severe harassment was higher. However, overall there was a greater presence of boys across the different groups of victims. The school variables considered were associated differentially according to gender. The student sense of belonging at school was not the same for girls and boys, nor did they have the same attitude towards absenteeism. The results are discussed in relation to other studies together with conclusions regarding the design of educational interventions and future research.


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