Noncompetitive Chromogenic Lateral-Flow Immunoassay for Simultaneous Detection of Microcystins and Nodularin

Akter, Sultana; Kustila, Teemu; Leivo, Janne; Muralitharan, Gangatharan; Vehniäinen, Markus; Lamminmäki, Urpo
June 2019
Biosensors (2079-6374);Jun2019, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p79
Academic Journal
Cyanobacterial blooms cause local and global health issues by contaminating surface waters. Microcystins and nodularins are cyclic cyanobacterial peptide toxins comprising numerous natural variants. Most of them are potent hepatotoxins, tumor promoters, and at least microcystin-LR is possibly carcinogenic. In drinking water, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the provisional guideline value of 1 µg/L for microcystin-LR. For water used for recreational activity, the guidance values for microcystin concentration varies mostly between 4–25 µg/L in different countries. Current immunoassays or lateral flow strips for microcystin/nodularin are based on indirect competitive method, which are generally more prone to sample interference and sometimes hard to interpret compared to two-site immunoassays. Simple, sensitive, and easy to interpret user-friendly methods for first line screening of microcystin/nodularin near water sources are needed for assessment of water quality and safety. We describe the development of a two-site sandwich format lateral-flow assay for the rapid detection of microcystins and nodularin-R. A unique antibody fragment capable of broadly recognizing immunocomplexes consisting of a capture antibody bound to microcystins/nodularin-R was used to develop the simple lateral flow immunoassay. The assay can visually detect the major hepatotoxins (microcystin-LR, -dmLR, -RR, -dmRR, -YR, -LY, -LF -LW, and nodularin-R) at and below the concentration of 4 µg/L. The signal is directly proportional to the concentration of the respective toxin, and the use of alkaline phosphatase activity offers a cost efficient alternative by eliminating the need of toxin conjugates or other labeling system. The easy to interpret assay has the potential to serve as a microcystins/nodularin screening tool for those involved in water quality monitoring such as municipal authorities, researchers, as well as general public concerned of bathing water quality.


Related Articles

  • Water quality monitoring by Thamnotoxkit F[sub TM] including cyanobacterial blooms. Torokne, A. Kozma; Laszlo, E.; Chorus, I.; Fastner, J.; Heinze, R.; Padisak, J.; Barbosa, F.A.R. // Water Science & Technology;2000, Vol. 42 Issue 1/2, p381 

    Discusses the use of the Thamnotoxkit F for detecting cyanobacterial toxins in water. Optimization of the coagulation process; Problems concerning toxin producing cyanobacteria.

  • Monitoring a newly re-born patient: water quality and cyanotoxin occurrence in a reconstructed shallow Mediterranean lake. Gkelis, Spyros; Panou, Manthos; Chronis, Ioannis; Zervou, Sevasti-Kiriaki; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Manolidi, Korina; Ntislidou, Chrysoula; Triantis, Theodoros M.; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Hiskia, Anastasia; Kagalou, Ifigenia; Lazaridou, Maria // Advances in Oceanography & Limnology;2017, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p90 

    Lake Karla (Central Greece) is a unique example - at European scale - of a shallow lake ecosystem that was dried in the 1960s and in 2009 started to be restored. The lake is listed in the network of the Greek protected areas as it is considered a vital aquatic ecosystem, in terms of...

  • Determining the fate of Microcystis aeruginosa cells and microcystin toxins following chloramination. Ho, Lionel; Kayal, Nawal; Trolio, Rino; Newcombe, Gayle // Water Science & Technology;2010, Vol. 62 Issue 2, p442 

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa can produce potent toxins known as microcystins. While many studies have focussed on the chlorination of microcystin toxins, little work has been conducted with respect to the chloramination of the microcystins. In addition, no studies have been reported...

  • ELIMINATION OF MICROCYSTIS CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE) BY AN OZOFLOTATION PROCESS: A PILOT PLANT STUDY. Benoufella, F.; Laplanche, A.; Boisdon, V.; Bourbigot, M. M. // Water Science & Technology;1994, Vol. 30 Issue 8, p245 

    It is now known that since cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) occur in both swimming and drinking water supplies, ,and lakes and rivers, they represent an increasing hazard to animal life and human population. Moreover, high algal contents pose also a number of operation problems for water...

  • The effects of a microcystin-producing and lacking strain of Microcystis on the survival of a widespread tropical copepod ( Notodiaptomus iheringi). Ger, Kemal; Panosso, Renata // Hydrobiologia;Oct2014, Vol. 738 Issue 1, p61 

    The tropical copepod Notodiaptomus iheringi ( N. iheringi) is an ideal subject for studying zooplankton responses to cyanobacteria because it co-exists with permanent blooms across widespread regions in South America in high abundance. Single and mixed diets containing Cryptomonas and either a...

  • Editorial on the Special Issue "Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges". D'Anglada, Lesley V. // Toxins;Nov2015, Vol. 7 Issue 11, p4437 

    An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses various reports within the issue on topics including the fate of microcystins and cyanobacterial toxins in environment, harmful algal blooms (HABs), and forecasting systems for freshwater and marine HABs.

  • Water, wastewater share SCADA system.  // WaterWorld;Jul/Aug96, Vol. 12 Issue 7, p9 

    Describes the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) used by Modesto, California's Water and Wastewater Departments, to optimize pumping, control treatment and prepare reports for the state of California. Engineering and installation of the monitoring system by...

  • A few facts about the Plum Creek Watershed.  // Hays Free Press (Buda, TX);4/24/2013, Vol. 111 Issue 4, p1D 

    The article presents several facts regarding the Plum Creek Watershed in Pennsylvania including the watershed area of 397 square miles, the municipalities within the vicinity of the shed which include Buda, Niederwald, and Uhland, and water quality monitoring stations which observe the watershed.

  • Determining the quality of your drinking water.  // Consumers' Research Magazine;Mar1994, Vol. 77 Issue 3, p26 

    Offers advice on how consumers can check the quality of their drinking water. Determining the source of drinking water; Visible problems; The Safe Drinking Water Act; Water treatment devices; Regulation of municipal water supplies in the United States.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics