Integrated space geodesy for mapping land deformation over Choushui River Fluvial Plain, Taiwan

Ge, Linlin; Ng, Alex Hay-Man; Du, Zheyuan; Chen, Horng-Yue; Li, Xiaojing
November 2017
International Journal of Remote Sensing;Nov2017, Vol. 38 Issue 22, p6319
Academic Journal
Groundwater is an important part of the precious water resources. As the fresh surface water resources become scarcer because of climate change, population growth, and industrial activities, more and more groundwater has been extracted to meet the demands of various water uses (e.g. municipal, industrial, and agricultural). Excessive groundwater extraction leads to severe ground subsidence which compromises the safety of surface and underground infrastructures. Modelling the effects of groundwater extraction is vital to the management and sustainable use of groundwater. However, results of such modelling have to be validated with inputs such as the field survey of ground subsidence. Levelling and continuous global positioning system (GPS) receiver networks are routinely used to collect these field measurements. Unfortunately, these techniques have limitations in terms of areal coverage and density of survey marks and, as a result, subsidence hot spots can be easily missed out. In order to provide a comprehensive picture of subsidence to aid geotechnical modelling and to assess the effectiveness of measures used to mitigate ground subsidence, satellite imaging radar interferometry techniques (interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) can be used to complement other deformation monitoring techniques. In this study, 20 Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images acquired from 31 December 2006 to 26 February 2011 were used to map the land displacement over the Choushui River Fluvial Plain (CRFP), Taiwan. The GPS measurements acquired at 10 continuously operating reference stations (CORS) were used to refine the orbit error in the each differential interferogram obtained from each radar image pair. The displacement time series over the distributed scatterers and the persistent scatterers were analysed. Several subsidence bowls were identified in CRFP. A quantitative comparison was conducted to compare the radar measurements to the GPS measurements over 36 GPS CORS stations. Good agreement between both measurements was observed with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.97, absolute mean difference of 3.2 mm year-1, and standard deviation of 4 mm year-1. The InSAR-measured Line-of-Sight displacement and GPS-measured horizontal displacement were integrated to derive the vertical displacement map. Two displacement maps were generated using two ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 pairs acquired between 2015 and 2016. Similar subsidence patterns were found in the two maps compared to the 2006-2011 displacement rate map, suggesting the land over the same region might have continued to fall.


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