Multiple Ways of Knowing: Fostering Resiliency Through Providing Opportunities for Participating in Learning

Shepard, Jerri Simms
February 2004
Reclaiming Children & Youth;Winter2004, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p210
Academic Journal
The model of multiple intelligences developed by Howard Gardner is proposed as a framework for developing strengths, which will provide protective factors against risk and contribute to resilient outcomes. Dr. Howard Gardner, an educational psychologist from Harvard University, developed the theory of multiple intelligences as the existence of several relatively autonomous human intellectual competencies. These intelligences include verbal/linguistic, visual/spatial, musical/rhythmic, logical/mathematical, body/kinesthetic, intrapersonal and interpersonal, and naturalist intelligences. Verbal/linguistic intelligence is described as the ability to think in words and use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. Logical-mathematical intelligence, on the other hand, involves the ability to calculate, quantify, consider hypotheses, and perform complex math operations. This type of intelligence enables the perception of relationships and connections and use abstract symbolic thought and sequential reasoning. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is defined as the capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills. Visual/spatial intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, tone and timbre. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. On the other hand, intrapersonal intelligence involves the capacity to understand one's self and to use this knowledge to plan and direct one's life. Finally, naturalist intelligence is defined as the ability to survive as human beings.


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