Removing Defiance: An Analysis of Disciplinary Referral Data of African American Children Within a Title 1 School

Dyke, J.
March 2016
Journal of African American Studies;Mar2016, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p53
Academic Journal
The research base establishing connections between children who identify as African American and increased disciplinary referrals due to defiance and/or insubordination has long been established. In August of 2014, the author was hired to serve as an assistant principal at a Title 1 urban public elementary school in the Midwestern USA. The author cataloged nearly 1000 referrals using an internal data management system while eliminating the consequence(s) of suspension and/or expulsion for the offense of 'defiance.' The study found that, despite this limitation, African American students were grossly overrepresented in both disciplinary referrals and exclusionary discipline.


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