Discipline Disproportionality among American Indian Students: Expanding the Discourse

Brown, Carolyn A.
August 2014
Journal of American Indian Education;2014, Vol. 53 Issue 2, p29
Academic Journal
While disproportionality in discipline referrals and discipline action has been fairly well established among African American students, especially males, little research has looked at disproportionality among American Indian students. This article uses a large dataset from the State of Arizona, with rich data on American Indian students, to explore if and how these students are being disproportionately referred for discipline and punished more harshly for lesser violations than their peers. Findings indicate that disproportionality in discipline referrals and in the violation-to-action relationship for American Indians is on par with those of African Americans and significantly higher than White peers.


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