Chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure of children to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) through indoor residual spraying

Osunkentan, AO; Evans, D.
April 2015
Rural & Remote Health;2015, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p1
Academic Journal
Introduction: Malaria remains a significant public health problem in endemic regions of the world, most especially in sub-Saharan Africa. As part of the global efforts to control malaria, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a cheap and effective chemical, was endorsed by the World Health Organization for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, in the light of evidence on the acute toxicity of DDT, concerns have grown about the safety or the possible chronic health effects from the continued use of this persistent chemical, generating much debate and research efforts over the years. The purpose of this study was to identify, appraise and synthesise evidence about the chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure to DDT in children, 0-18 years, in zones where IRS is practised, in order to contribute to informing policy decisions. Methods: Twenty-seven electronic databases were systematically searched using pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two were trial registers while 25 others indexed studies of various designs. Other complementary methods were also employed in searching for both published and grey literature. Eligible studies were critically appraised using amended versions of available validated guidelines (and in a case, an improvised guideline) and a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results: Only nine studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria out of 3281 hits generated. Five of the studies are of high quality while four are of moderate quality. For the three studies on neurodevelopment, evidence suggestive of negative impact of DDT was found. For the three studies on endocrine/congenital disorders, ambivalent evidence existed. In the case of the immunity-related outcome, there was growing but insufficient evidence of negative effect. The only study on survival outcome was inconclusive. Conclusions: Empirically, insufficient evidence exists with regard to the chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure of children to DDT through IRS. Considering the dearth of studies and the fact that many adverse effects might take much longer time to manifest, inferences drawn are weak. It would therefore require a series of well-coordinated observational studies done in the context of IRS to adequately address this evidence gap in the future.


Related Articles

  • Adverse Events of Auricular Therapy: A Systematic Review. Jing-Yu Tan; Molassiotis, Alexander; Tao Wang; Suen, Lorna K. P. // Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM);2014, Vol. 2014, p1 

    The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the literature on adverse events associated with auricular therapy (AT). Case reports, case series, surveys, and all types of clinical trials reporting adverse events of AT were included. Relevant articles were mainly retrieved from 13...

  • The Therapy of Peri-implantitis: A Systematic Review. Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J. A.; Mombelli, Andrea // International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants;2014 Supplement, Vol. 29, p325 

    Purpose: To evaluate the success of treatments aimed at the resolution of peri-implantitis in patients with osseointegrated implants. Materials and Methods: The potentially relevant literature was assessed independently by two reviewers to identify case series and comparative studies describing...

  • Impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: review of the evidence. Hill, Sarah; Amos, Amanda; Clifford, David; Platt, Stephen // Tobacco Control;Nov2014 Supplement, Vol. 23 Issue S1, pe89 

    OBJECTIVE: We updated and expanded a previous systematic literature review examining the impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. METHODS: We searched the academic literature for reviews and primary research articles published between January 2006 and...

  • Progressive muscle relaxation in persons with schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U; Scheewe, Thomas W; Probst, Michel; De Herdt, Amber; Knapen, Jan; De Hert, Marc // Clinical Rehabilitation;Apr2013, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p291 

    The article presents a study that assessed the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation on psychological distress and anxiety symptoms for people with schizophrenia. It includes a study conducted through three randomized controlled trials on patients with schizophrenia. It concludes that...

  • The Relationship Between Ethnicity and the Pain Experience of Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. Wingfai Kwok; Bhuvanakrishna, Thakshyanee // Indian Journal of Palliative Care;Sep-Dec2014, Vol. 20 Issue 3, p194 

    Background: Cancer pain is a complex multidimensional construct. Physicians use a patient-centered approach for its effective management, placing a great emphasis on patient self-reported ratings of pain. In the literature, studies have shown that a patient's ethnicity may influence the...

  • Intervenciones eficaces en consumo problemático de alcohol y otras drogas. Lefio, Luis Álvaro; Raúl Villarroel, Sebastián; Rebolledo, Cristian; Zamorano, Pamela; Rivas, Katherine // Pan American Journal of Public Health;Oct2013, Vol. 34 Issue 4, p257 

    Objective. Synthesize and assess the available scientific evidence from the period 2008-2012 on interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the treatment and rehabilitation of adolescents and adults engaged in the problematic use of alcohol and other substances. Methods. A systematic review was...

  • Searching for Evidence via the Internet. Galanis, Petros // Nosileftiki;Jan-Mar2013, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p13 

    Scientific evidences are about the results of studies that are conducted in health sciences and are used in everyday clinical practice in combination with clinical experience and patients' values. For this reason, health scientists must rely on the results that come from reliable and valid...

  • Palliative Sedation Therapy: A Systematic Literature Review and Critical Appraisal of Available Guidance on Indication and Decision Making. Schildmann, Eva; Schildmann, Jan // Journal of Palliative Medicine;May2014, Vol. 17 Issue 5, p601 

    Background: Palliative sedation therapy (PST) is increasingly used in end-of-life care. However, consensus about definitions, indications, and treatment decision making is lacking. Objective: The objective is to review and critically appraise published guidelines on indication and decision...

  • Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Vrabel, Mark // Oncology Nursing Forum;Sep2015, Vol. 42 Issue 5, p552 

    The article explores the factors to preferred reporting items on systematic reviews and meta-analysis in oncology nursing. Topics discussed include the key steps to a systematic review, the guidelines for oncology nurses under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics